Grades are calculated automatically in my grading rubric using attribute values assigned or calculated at each of the three levels of the hierarchy. So to explain how it works, I’m going to start with the lowest level and move up to the highest.

Before I do though, it’s perhaps worth noting that these calculations use the $Checked attribute. If checkboxes aren’t visible in the outline, you can show them by going to VIEW ==> USE CHECKBOXES. Or if you prefer, $Checked can be set as a key attribute in the p_rubric_component prototype.

# Descriptors

Basic grade values are established here by selecting one of the available descriptors and ticking its checkbox. If you wish to change the default point value of a descriptor, you may do so by entering the new value in the key attributes. The rule presented in the previous post will update its $Name to reflect the new value.

Two things are worth noting:

- Once the grading is done, there should only be one descriptor checked per criterion. The final step in the grade calculation is a simple sum: if more than one descriptor is checked, the student will be awarded points more than once for that criterion, and their final grade will be higher than it should be.
- The criteria and final grade calculations that I use assume that each descriptor is evaluated by a point score between 0 and 10. If this isn’t the case for you, you’d have to adjust the calculations.

# Criteria

The criteria-note calculations take the point value of a checked descriptor and multiply it by its criterion’s weight to determine the points awarded toward the final grade. (See note on weighting below.)

To generate my weighted grade, I need to multiply the assigned grade — stored in the selected descriptor’s $RubricPointValue — by the criterion’s weight — stored in as the criterion’s $RubricCategoryMax value. The simplified calculation that would seem to perform this multiplication (but doesn’t) looks like this:

$RubricCategoryPointValue=$RubricPointValue(child)*$RubricCategoryMax

This tells TBX to pull the point value stored in the child note (i.e. the descriptor), to multiply it by the criterion weight stored in the criteria note, and to store the result in $RubricCategoryPointValue.

However, there is a problem: each criteria has more than one child. This rule doesn’t care about that and simply calculates the weighted value of the first child, whether I’ve checked that child or not. To make my rubric work, I have to tell TBX that it should use the $RubricPointValue of the child I have checked and to ignore the rest.

Using Mark Anderson’s TbRef, I discovered that the way to do this is to use “sum_if(x, y, z)” which I found very intimidating at first but which I’ve decided is not as complicated as it seems. As I understand it, this command tells TBX to add up numerical values that match a set of conditions (or arguments) laid out in the parenthesis. There are three types of conditions possible, and I’ve labelled them x, y, and z. (I don’t know if all three are required but I use all three of them in my calculation.) What they stand for is this:

- X tells TBX which notes to look at by indicating a location. For example, I could replace X with “all” and TBX would look at all the notes in my project, but for my rubric, I only need my calculation to consider “children.”
- Z tells TBX which attribute to look at. In my calculation, I want TBX to see if a descriptor note is checked or not, so I use “$Checked” for the value of z.
- Y tells TBX what value it’s looking for in the attribute it’s examining. Now I’m sure this argument allows the initiated to do incredible, magical things, but thankfully I only have to ask TBX to look for checkmarks, which is a boolean value — yes/no, true/false — and so, I need nothing more complicated than “$Checked==true”.

Combine these three conditions in a parenthesis, separate them by commas and then use them to update the equation presented above and you have:

$RubricCategoryPointValue=sum_if(children,$Checked==true,$RubricPointValue)*$RubricCategoryMax*0.1

This looks complicated enough to make my heart flutter and my stomach ache, but it works and in a weird sort of way is logical. You just have to work up step-by-step. (…and ask questions.)

Regarding the final term of the equation (“*0.1”): because I use values from 0 to 100 to define criteria weighting, I have to multiply the product of my calculation by 0.1. If I don’t do this, the final grade calculation will report a grade of 88/100 as 880/100. Defining criteria weight with a scale of 0-10 would eliminate this problem, but I prefer thinking of weighting as percentages, which is more natural with a 0-100 scale. Multiplying by 0.1 moves the decimal point to where it belongs.

This calculation is stored as a rule in the p_rubric_category prototype, which then automatically applies it to all criteria notes in all instances of the rubric.

# Final Grade

In my rubric, all the heavy lifting happens at the criteria level. Once the weighted point values are calculated and stored in the $RubricCategoryPointValue attribute, all that’s left to do is to add up these weighted values. To do this I use the “sum(x,z)” command. In this command, X and Z function in the same way as they do above. No Y argument is necessary because the command isn’t evaluating a condition in order to determine which values to add: “sum(x,z)” adds all the values found at the designated location.

As a result, the rule that calculates the final grade is simpler and reads:

$RubricEssayGrade=sum(children,$RubricCategoryPointValue);

The result of this sum — which will always be a value between 0 and 100 — is the final grade of the essay stated as a percentage. It is stored in the $RubricEssayGrade attribute where it is used to set the rubric’s $Subtitle and $HoverExpression.

And that’s it for the grade calculations. In the next post, I’ll explain how I export the rubric as a comment sheet for students.

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#### Note on weighting

If all the criteria were weighted the same or if the descriptors awarded points on scales that directly reflected differences in weighting, the criteria-based calculation would not be necessary. The root-level rule could use sum_if(x,y,z) to calculate the final grade directly. However, I choose to use a standard scale (0 to 10) to evaluate all criteria and then to assign the weight for the criteria in a separate attribute.

I prefer using multiple attributes for two reasons. First, the standard scale makes grading easier: I know “7” always means 7/10 (and not 7/15 or 7/20). Second and more importantly, having a separate attribute for the weighting allows me to adjust (and experiment with) the relative weighting of my criteria without out having to continually adjust the individual point values of dozens of descriptors. This makes the rubric much easier to adapt for use in new assignments.

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